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【知识】常见挥发性有机物(VOCs)到底是什么类型化合物,标准是什么

发布时间:2022-05-09 15:09:08 来源:说化有益
VOCs是挥发性有机化合物(Volatile Organic Compounds)的英文缩写,其定义有好几种,美国ASTM D3960-98标准将其定义为任何能参加大气光化学反应的有机化合物。美国联邦环保署(EPA)这样定义:挥发性有机化合物是除CO、CO2、H2CO3、金属碳化物、金属碳酸盐和碳酸铵外,任何参加大气光化学反应的碳化合物。

在我国,VOCs(volatile organic compounds)挥发性有机物是指常温下饱和蒸汽压大于70.91 Pa、标准大气压101.3kPa下沸点在50~260℃以下且初馏点等于250摄氏度的有机化合物,或在常温常压下任何能挥发的有机固体或液体。目前,我国VOCs的环境质量标准暂未颁布,VOCs的排放标准暂时没有国家标准,但各重点监测区域相继颁布了地方排放标准或行业标准。国标对于VOCs的监测,使用的是《环境空气 挥发性有机物的测定 罐采样/气相色谱-质谱法》(HJ 759-2015)。该方法可对直链烃、环烷烃、芳香烃、含氧化合物、苯系物、卤代烃等大多数挥发性有机物检测分析,检测组分多达67种,是目前VOC检测组分最齐全的方法。同时,该方法与美国环保署(EPA)TO-14/15标准较为一致,基本上包含了TO-14/15重点监测组分,是我国各级环境监测站开展挥发性有机物监测的重要指导文件。

从环境监测的角度来讲,VOCs是以氢火焰离子检测器检出的非甲烷总烃类检出物的总称,主要包括烷烃类、芳烃类、烯烃类、卤烃类、酯类、醛类、酮类和其他有机化合物。

综上所述,VOC和VOCs其实是同一类物质,即挥发性有机化合物(Volatile Organic Compounds)的英文缩写,由于挥发性有机化合物一般成分不止一种,因此VOCs更精准。

下表为常见VOCs种类:

CAS 号 英文名                        化学品       沸点(℃) 蒸气压(20℃下, Pa) 
71-55-6 1,1,1-trichloroethane 1,1,1-三氯乙烷 74.000 13,055.5600
79-00-5 1,1,2-trichloroethane 1,1,2-三氯乙烷 113.700 2,351.9800
87-61-6 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,3-三氯苯 218-219     32.6300
107-06-2 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC) 1,2-二氯乙烷 83.400   8,219.9500
122-66-7 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine 1,2-二苯肼 229.000         0.0454
106-99-0 1,3-Butadiene 1,3-丁二烯 -4.500 238,            833.7800
123-91-1 1,4-Diethyleneoxide 1,4-二恶烷 131.700         3,905.9400
540-84-1 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-三甲基戊烷 99.238 5,107.6800
79-46-9 2-Nitropropane 2-硝基丙烷 119-122 1,732.2200
83-32-9 Acenaphthene 231.200 1.2000
75-07-0 Acetaldehyde 乙醛 20.400 99,156.7200
60-35-5 Acetamide 乙酰胺 221.150 4.0400
75-05-8 Acetonitrile 乙腈 81.600 9,568.5300
98-86-2 Acetophenone 苯乙酮 201.700 35.9200
107-02-8 Acrolein 丙烯醛 53.000 29,485.5400
79-06-1 Acrylamide 丙烯酰胺 231.700 0.1660
79-10-7 Acrylic acid 丙烯酸 116.400 372.0800
107-13-1 Acrylonitrile 丙烯腈 77.300 11,447.1100
107-05-1 Allyl chloride 3-氯丙烯 41.600 40,226.0100
62-53-3 Aniline 苯胺 184.300 42.7400
71-43-2 Benzene 80.100 9,945.2300
98-07-7 Benzotrichloride 三氯化苄 219-223 43.7600
100-44-7 Benzylchloride 苄基氯 179.400 123.1000
92-52-4 Biphenyl 联苯 255.200 1.6900
542-88-1 Bis(chloromethyl)ether 双氯甲醚 182.400 2,951.2400
75-25-2 Bromoform 三溴甲烷 149.000 538.2400
75-15-0 Carbon disulfide 二硫化碳 46.200 39,237.8700
56-23-5 Carbon tetrachloride 四氯化碳 76.500 12,057.8000
79-11-8 Chloroacetic acid 一氯乙酸 189.000 18.5800
108-90-7 Chlorobenzene 氯苯 131.700 1,197.9000
67-66-3 Chloroform 三氯甲烷 61.100 19,416.3400
126-99-8 Chloroprene 2-氯-1,3-丁二烯 59.100 23,499.9800
108-39-4 Cresol and cresylic acid (m-) 间-甲酚 202.200 14.2200
106-44-5 Cresol and cresylic acid (p) 对-甲酚 201.900 8.2500
98-82-8 Cumene 异丙基苯 152.392 436.1200
77-78-1 Dimethyl sulfate 硫酸二甲酯 188.000 61.7700
106-89-8 Epichlorohydrin
 (l-Chloro-2,3epoxypropane) 环氧氯丙烷 116.100 1,655.4300
140-88-5 Ethyl acrylate 丙烯酸乙酯 100.000 3,909.8300
100-41-4 Ethyl benzene 乙苯 136.186 950.8700
75-00-3 Ethylchloride 氯乙烷 12.200 133,708.0400
106-93-4 Ethylene dibromide 1,2-二溴乙烷 130.200 1,346.0500
107-21-1 Ethylene glycol 乙二醇 197.200 7.5700
75-21-8 Ethylene oxide 环氧乙烷 10.300 145,672.5700
75-34-3 Ethylidene dichloride
 (1,1-Dichloroethane) 亚乙基二氯
(1,1-二氯乙烷) 183.700 24,288.1800
50-00-0 Formaldehyde 甲醛 -19.500 440,037.9900
87-68-3 Hexachlorobutadiene 六氯丁二烯 231.000 19.6100
67-72-1 Hexachloroethane 六氯乙烷 185.600 61.9400
110-54-3 Hexane 正己烷 121.240 16,214.8800
78-59-1 lsophorone 异佛尔酮 215.200 40.8800
108-31-6 Maleic anhydride 马来酸酐 119.300 33.6400
67-56-1 Methanol 甲醇 64.600 12,758.0400
78-93-3 Methyl ethyl ketone (2-Butanone) 甲乙酮(2-丁酮) 202.000 9,970.2400
108-10-1 Methyl isobutyl ketone (Hexone) 甲基异丁基酮 94.200 1,966.9500
624-83-9 Methyl isocyanate 基异氰酸盐 35.000 49,747.5000
80-62-6 Methyl methacrylate 甲基丙烯酸甲酯 100.300 3,915.4400
1634-04-4 Methyl tert-butyl ether 甲基叔丁基醚 55.200 26,768.5600
74-83-9 Methylbromide (Bromomethane) 溴甲烷 3.500 183,474.2900
74-87-3 Methylchloride (Chloromethane) 氯甲烷 -24.300 492,691.5100
75-09-2 Methylene chloride
 (Dichloromethane) 二氯甲烷 39.800 46,735.6900
121-69-7 N,N-dimethylaniline N,N-二甲基苯胺 193.500 66.2000
68-12-2 N,N-dimethylformamide N,N-二甲基甲酰胺 153.000 372.0300
98-95-3 Nitrobenzene 硝基苯 210.600 22.1700
95-48-7 o-Cresol and cresylic acid 邻甲酚 191.000 25.8700
95-47-6 o-xylene 邻二甲苯 144.411 647.1400
106-46-7 p-Dichlorobenzene 对-二氯苯 174.100 166.4000
127-18-4 Perchloroethylene 四氯乙烯 121.100 1,870.8400
108-95-2 Phenol 苯酚 181.800 47.4500
75-44-5 Phosgene 氯代甲酰氯 8.200 158,376.4200
106-50-3 p-Phenylenediamine 对苯二胺 267.400 0.3400
57-57-8 Propiolactone (beta-) β-丙内酯 162.000 158.4300
123-38-6 Propionaldehyde 丙醛 47.930 34,003.0100
78-87-5 Propylene dichloride 1,2-二氯丙烷 96.300 16,723.1900
75-56-9 Propylene oxide 环氧丙烷 34.300 58,030.9000
106-42-3 p-xylenes 对二甲苯 138.351 874.5600
100-42-5 Styrene 苯乙烯 145.140 592.2500
79-34-5 Tetrachloroethanes 1,1,2,2-四氯乙烷 146.200 436.0300
108-88-3 Toluene 甲苯 110.625 2,887.9300
79-01-6 Trichloroethylene 三氯乙烯 87.200 7,688.7400
121-44-8 Triethylamine 三乙胺 89.500 7,125.3100
108-05-4 Vinyl acetate 醋酸乙烯酯 73.000 11,932.8800
75-01-4 Vinyl chloride 氯乙烯 -13.400 339,701.7600
76-13-1 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane 氟利昂-113 47.500 35,856.1500
96-18-4 1,2,3-trichloropropane 1,2,3-三氯丙烷 156.800 355.3100
120-82-1 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-三氯苯 211.400 40.4300
108-70-3 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-三氯苯 211.300 49.9200
107-88-0 1,3-butylene glycol 1,3-丁二醇 207.000 1.5300
106-98-9 1-butene 正丁烯 -6.260 255,858.4800
109-67-1 1-pentene 1-戊烯 29.968 70,783.2900
104-76-7 2-ethylhexanol 2-乙基己醇 184.600 10.5400
2807-30-9 2-propoxy-ethano 乙二醇单丙醚 258.200 294.5900
105-57-7 Acetal 1,1-二乙氧基乙烷 103.600 2,732.4100
64-19-7 Acetic acid 乙酸 117.900 1,559.4100
108-24-7 Acetic anhydride 乙酸酐 139.000 330.4200
67-64-1 Acetone 丙酮 56.200 24,390.5600
75-86-5 Acetone cyanohydrin 丙酮氰醇 167.300 104.7700
75-36-5 Acetyl chloride 乙酰氯 51.000 30,793.4800
74-86-2 Acetylene 乙炔 -84.000 4,328,141.9300
107-18-6 Allyl alcohol 丙烯醇 54.300 2,537.1900
98-83-9 α-methylstyrene α-甲基苯乙烯 165-169 252.4400
111-41-1 Aminoethylethanolamine 羟乙基乙二胺 215.980 0.1100
628-63-7 amyl acetate 乙酸戊酯 149.200 330.7200
110-58-7 Amyl amine 1-氨基戊烷 105.500 3,018.5500
543-59-9 Amyl chloride 1-氯戊烷 107-108 3,356.5800
100-66-3 Anisole 苯甲醚 153.600 344.8800
100-52-7 Benzaldehyde 苯甲醛 178.700 110.2600
65-85-0 Benzoic acid 苯甲酸 250.000 0.3580
100-47-0 Benzonitrile 苯甲腈 191.000 71.4200
100-51-6 Benzyl alcohol 苯甲醇 204.699 6.6600
98-87-3 Benzyl dichloride 二氯苄 214.000 48.2200
100-46-9 Benzylamine 苄胺 185.000 59.3200
108-99-6 b-picoline 3-甲基吡啶 143.500 587.6700
107-92-6 Butyric acid 丁酸 163.270 84.9800
106-31-0 Butyric anhydride 丁酸酐 198.300 24.2700
109-74-0 Butyronitrile 丁腈 118.000 1,959.2000
105-60-2 Caprolactam 己内酰胺 180.000 0.5000
558-13-4 Carbon tetrabromide 四溴化碳 181.200 85.6500
75-45-6 Chlorodifluoroethane 一氯二氟甲烷 -40.800 893,928.8100
75-72-9 Chlorotrifluoromethane 氯三氟甲烷 26.800 3,178,608.4900
80-15-9 Cumene hydroperoxide 过氧化羟基异丙苯 253.700 0.3490
506-77-4 Cyanogen chloride 氯化氰 13.800 134,561.5500
110-82-7 Cyclohexane 环己烷 80.738 10,367.1900
108-93-0 Cyclohexanol 环己醇 159.600 65.4600
108-94-1 Cyclohexanone 环己酮 155.600 345.0400
110-83-8 Cyclohexene 环己烯 82.979 9,295.6000
108-91-8 Cyclohexylamine 环己胺 134.500 990.8000
111-78-4 Cyclooctadiene 1,5-环辛二烯 125.000 479.2300
112-30-1 Decanol 1-癸醇 230.000 0.6220
123-42-2 Diacetone alcohol 甲基戊酮醇 168.100 162.3300
75-71-8 Dichlorodifluoromethane 氟里昂-12 -29.800 560,905.0700
101-83-7 Dicyclohexylamine 二环己胺 256.100 2.8200
111-46-6 Diethylene glycol 二甘醇 246.000 0.4390
112-36-7 Diethylene glycol diethyl ether 二乙二醇二乙醚 190.200 47.3000
111-96-6 Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether 二乙二醇二甲醚 159.800 281.9500
112-15-2 Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether 乙二醇一甲醚 221.800 13.1400
112-15-2 Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether 乙二醇一甲醚 162.700 13.1400
111-77-3 Diethylene glycol monomethyl 二乙二醇单甲醚 226.927 14.8400
75-37-6 Difluoroethane 1,1-二氟乙烷 -25.000 563,101.6200
674-82-8 Diketene 二乙烯酮 106.600 1,055.4600
75-18-3 Dimethyl sulfide 二甲基硫 38.000 53,488.0900
67-68-5 Dimethyl sulfoxide 二甲基亚砜 189.000 56.5400
101-84-8 Diphenyl oxide 二苯醚 258.000 3.7500
25265-71-8 Dipropylene glycol 一缩二丙二醇 230.500 2.7200
64-17-5 Ethanol 乙醇 78.300 5,830.2900
60-29-7 Ether 乙醚 34.480 0.5800
141-78-6 Ethyl acetate 乙酸乙酯 73.900 9,632.1700
141-97-9 Ethyl acetoacetate 乙酰乙酸乙酯 236.300 71.8700
74-96-4 Ethyl bromide 溴乙烷 38.300 51,046.7000
75-04-7 Ethylamine 乙胺 16.500 114,501.2200
105-56-6 Ethylcyanoacetate 氰乙酸乙酯 206.000 5.0500
74-85-1 Ethylene 乙烯 -103.710 6,261,415.6000
107-07-3 Ethylene chlorohydrin 2-氯乙醇 128.600 692.9300
111-55-7 Ethylene glycol diacetate 乙二醇二乙酸酯 168.000 5.6800
110-71-4 Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether 乙二醇二甲醚 63.000 7,916.4300
111-15-9 Ethylene glycol monethyl ether 乙二醇乙醚醋酸酯 156.400 217.7100
111-76-2 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether 乙二醇单丁醚 151.579 77.6000
110-80-5 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 乙二醇单乙醚 221.000 499.6800
109-86-4 Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether 乙二醇甲醚 124.600 853.2400
107-15-3 Ethylenediamine 乙二胺 117.200 1,162.7500
75-12-7 Formamide 甲酰胺 210.500 4.9500
64-18-6 Formic acid 甲酸 100.600 4,402.6600
98-01-1 Furfural 糠醛 161.800 208.5800
56-81-5 Glycerol 甘油 98.300 0.0117
629-11-8 Hexamethylene glycol 1,6-己二醇 239.700 0.0701
124-09-4 Hexamethylenediamine 1,6-己二胺 226.400 10.0000
74-90-8 Hydrogen cyanide 氰化氢 25.700 81,251.1800
123-92-2 Isoamyl acetate 乙酸异戊酯 142.000 510.2300
78-83-1 Isobutanol 异丁醇 107.800 947.8100
110-19-0 Isobutyl acetate 乙酸异丁酯 116.800 1,766.5200
115-11-7 Isobutylene 异丁烯 -6.900 262,095.5800
78-84-2 Isobutyraldehyde 异丁醛 67.100 18,299.2000
79-31-2 Isobutyric acid 异丁酸 154.700 167.3400
25339-17-7 Isodecanol 异癸醇 213.400 1.6200
78-78-4 Isopentane 2-甲基丁烷 30.000 76,218.3300
78-79-5 Isoprene 异戊二烯 34.000 60,574.7300
67-63-0 Isopropanol 异丙醇 82.200 4,409.2200
108-21-4 Isopropyl acetate 乙酸异丙酯 88.200 6,199.0800
75-29-6 Isopropyl chloride 2-氯丙烷 35-36 58,495.5700
75-31-0 Isopropylamine 异丙胺 48.600 62,683.3900
463-51-4 Ketene 乙烯酮 -56.000 1,214,927.6200
108-42-9 m-chloroaniline 3-氯苯胺 227.800 5.5800
108-41-8 m-chlorotoluene 3-氯甲苯 161.600 307.5000
541-73-1 m-dichlorobenzene 1,3-二氯苯 173.000 206.0400
141-79-7 Mesityl oxide 4-甲基-3-戊烯-2-酮 132.700 1,085.4800
79-41-4 Methacrylic acid 甲基丙烯酸 162-163 87.8100
563-47-3 Methallyl chloride 3-氯-2-甲基丙烯 72.500 11,237.6400
79-20-9 Methyl acetate 醋酸甲酯 56.900 22,648.4600
105-45-3 Methyl acetoacetate 乙酰乙酸甲酯 169.400 80.7300
107-31-3 Methyl formate 甲酸甲酯 31.700 63,434.3500
108-11-2 Methyl isobutyl carbinol 4-甲基-2-戊醇 133.500 489.0700
74-89-5 Methylamine 甲胺 -6.400 294,402.2800
108-87-2 Methylcyclohexane 甲基环己烷 100.934 4,753.2300
13952-84-6 Methylpropylamine 仲丁胺 62.900 18,839.9000
110-91-8 Morpholine 吗啡啉 128.900 986.8700
115-10-6 N,N-dimethyl ether 甲醚 -24.900 507,144.6000
71-41-0 n-Amyl alcohol 1-戊醇 137.800 218.5100
123-86-4 n-butyl acetate 乙酸丁酯 126.600 1,022.2100
141-32-2 n-butyl acrylate 丙烯酸丁酯 221.938 530.8300
71-36-3 n-butyl alcohol 正丁醇 117.700 648.9600
109-73-9 n-butylamine 正丁胺 77.400 9,456.6300
123-72-8 n-butyraldehyde 丁醛 77.600 11,626.2600
75-98-9 Neopentanoic acid 特戊酸 166.209 52.7400
79-24-3 Nitroethane 硝基乙烷 109.200 2,081.6500
75-52-5 Nitromethane 硝基甲烷 100-102 3,640.1300
100-61-8 n-methylaniline N-甲基苯胺 200.400 41.0600
109-66-0 n-pentane 正戊烷 30.074 56,259.4600
71-23-8 n-propyl alcohol 正丙醇 97.200 1,973.2100
95-51-2 o-chloroaniline 邻氯苯胺 208.800 17.6700
88-73-3 o-chloronitrobenzene 邻氯硝基苯 245.500 1.8100
95-49-8 o-chlorotoluene 邻氯甲苯 159.500 339.3600
95-50-1 o-dichlorobenzene 1,2-二氯苯 180.400 127.3200
123-63-7 Paraldehyde 三聚乙醛 233.900 1,072.5200
106-47-8 p-chloroaniline 对氯苯胺 208.800 6.3500
100-00-5 p-chloronitrobenzene 对硝基氯苯 242.000 2.3300
106-43-4 p-chlorotoluene 对氯甲苯 162.200 264.3800
110-85-0 Piperazine 哌嗪 149.324 330.1300
156-43-4 p-phenetidine 对氨基苯乙醚 254.000 0.8490
79-09-4 Propionic acid 丙酸 140.830 347.9800
540-54-5 Propyl chloride 1-氯丙烷 46.600 37,183.8200
107-10-8 Propylamine 丙胺 48.600 32,792.5700
115-07-1 Propylene 丙烯 -47.700 1,015,268.1900
57-55-6 Propylene glycol 1,2-丙二醇 187.300 10.5900
110-86-1 Pyridine 吡啶 115-116 2,080.7100
69-72-7 Salicylic acid 水杨酸 211.000 0.1010
78-92-2 s-butyl alcohol 仲丁醇 99.500 1,719.7800
110-15-6 Succinic acid 丁二酸 236.100 0.0005
75-65-0 t-butyl alcohol 叔丁醇 82.400 3,977.9100
75-64-9 t-butylamine 叔丁胺 44.400 40,154.7600
119-64-2 Tetrahydronaphthalene 1,2,3,4-四氢萘 210.300 33.2500
584-84-9 Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate 甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯 115-120 1.0800
75-69-4 Trichlorofluoromethane 三氯氟甲烷 26.800 88,844.6400
112-49-2 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether 三乙二醇二乙醚 197.200 3.2800
75-50-3 Trimethylamine 三甲胺 2.900 182,229.2100
75-35-4 Vinylidene chloride 过氯乙烯 31.600 65,938.5800

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